Gzhel ceramics can be described as faience or majolica, a sort of pottery made of burnt white clay, covered with painted glaze. Its traditionally blue and dark blue ornaments and floral designs against the background of white glaze make gzhel easily recognizable. Gzhel follows old Russian traditions of folk arts and crafts. Gzhel masters paint every item exclusively by hand. The painting is made with cobalt, which acquires the characteristic blue colour in the technological process. The distinctive Russian chinaware with ornate blue painting and multicolored majolica are now well known not in Russia only, but abroad as well. Gzhel artworks attract lovers of beauty due to rich fancy and high craftsmanship of their creators. Gzhel is considered to be the cradle and the main centre of Russian ceramics. This is where its best features took shape and the highest achievements of folk art developed. So how old is this Russian folk handicraft?
Crisis Strikes Russia’s Traditional Craft Industries
Russian pearl, You enchant us. These poems are the poet M. Averyanov dedicated Gzhel.
Gzhel Porcelain Vase: Gzhel Porcelain Vase: : Kitchen & Home. of your favorite animal, the memorable date, the name of the city or other text.
The toughness, strength, and translucence of porcelain, relative to other types of pottery , arises mainly from vitrification and the formation of the mineral mullite within the body at these high temperatures. Though definitions vary, porcelain can be divided into three main categories: hard-paste , soft-paste and bone china. The category that an object belongs to depends on the composition of the paste used to make the body of the porcelain object and the firing conditions. Porcelain slowly evolved in China and was finally achieved depending on the definition used at some point about 2, to 1, years ago, then slowly spread to other East Asian countries, and finally Europe and the rest of the world.
Its manufacturing process is more demanding than that for earthenware and stoneware , the two other main types of pottery, and it has usually been regarded as the most prestigious type of pottery for its delicacy, strength, and its white colour. It combines well with both glazes and paint, and can be modelled very well, allowing a huge range of decorative treatments in tablewares, vessels and figurines.
It also has many uses in technology and industry. The European name, porcelain in English, comes from the old Italian porcellana cowrie shell because of its resemblance to the surface of the shell. Porcelain has been described as being “completely vitrified, hard, impermeable even before glazing , white or artificially coloured, translucent except when of considerable thickness , and resonant”.
Gzhel: Center for traditional ceramic pottery
Theme villages Photo gallery. Gzhel front room The exhibition familiarizes with one of the oldest Russian folk art, which became a unique artistic phenomenon, Gzhel ceramics. Gzhel is an ancient pottery district of Moscow region. The date, when the manufacture of ceramics began there, is unknown.
However, the earliest mentions of Gzhel pottery date back to the 14th century In the middle of the 18th century, Gzhel porcelain began to gain.
As noted in the article Imperial Porcelain Factory: history and modernity , the plant has always developed under the patronage of the ruling elite — the monarchs or, later, the state. Therefore, the marking of manufactured products always included state symbols: the monogram of the emperor, the coats of arms or monarchical symbols. Since its foundation in , the plant has been known as the Nevskaya Porcelain Manufactory.
Russian chemist D. Vinogradov, the founder of Russian porcelain, marked the first articles with the capital letter of his name, adding a year or the exact date of their manufacture. Some labels include the recipe number for the porcelain mixture. Later, from the mids, the brand takes the form of a two-headed eagle. The image was applied by the method of pressing into the mass or in the form of underglaze or overglaze painting of blue, black or gold. The color is blue or gold, applied under the glaze or on top of it.
Sometimes together with them the year of manufacture was put. We see that the marking of porcelain products continues the tradition in the form of a monogram of Emperor Paul I crowned with a crown. The colors are the same: blue or gold, above the glaze or under it. As you can see, if the name of the emperor is unique at the time of his accession, the figure I was never put.
Gzhel Porcelain from Russia
The region forms the so-called “Gzhel bush. Gzhel style porcelain. In about the artisans brothers Kulikovs found the secret of the white porcelain mass. Since that time the region became a center of porcelain craft.
Gzhel ceramics can be described as faience or majolica, a sort of pottery made The painting became richer and more up-to-date artistically.
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Porcelain from China and Germany had been known in Russia for centuries due to trade relations with foreign countries and private travel. But porcelain production became possible in Russia only in the s as the result of work done by talented Russian scientist Dmitry Vinogradov, who discovered the secret of porcelain production and began its industrial manufacture. Thus, due to his efforts, the Imperial Porcelain Factory was founded.
Ceramic and porcelain products in the museum of Gzhel porcelain factory. Event date: Import date: Author: Evgeny Biyatov.
As with anything attractive, there are many copies of the famous Delft blue porcelain that have been made over the years. This distinctive blue and white pottery often depicts scenes from Holland, but back in the old days had a more botanical feel, with tiles, spoons, pitchers, and bowls bearing all kinds of designs. Today, many of the Delft pieces most commonly found in stores are of the tourist variety — sold for a quick buck without the true hallmarks of traditional Delftware.
In the s the Dutch explorers brought in wealth and a variety of products for the nation, which made them a world-class trading partner for other European countries. All of these products held up well over long voyages and were soon considered indispensable for the well-to-do in Europe, the Middle East, and even in the Americas. What made Dutch pottery so special was that the tea culture in Europe had not yet evolved and at the time the Dutch were some of the few making teacups and the proper paraphenalia whith which to drink tea.
The hand-painted pieces were lavishly decorated in vibrant blues, but also other colors like black, red, and yellow, depending on the design.
Sagittarius Zodiac Porcelain Figurine Hand Painted in Russia Orinal Gzhel
There is a group of about thirty villages located not far from Moscow bearing the name of Gzhel , which has long been famous for its white-burning clay. Gzhel must have been the name of one of these villages. The origin of this name is somehow connected with the verb zhech – “to fire, to burn”. The place has always been the center of folk pottery and has played an important role in the history and development of Russian ceramic arts.
Traditionally , Gzhel has supplied clay to many factories and produced excellent pottery famous all over the country.
Gzhel is a tradition Russian style of ceramics. It takes its name from the village of Gzhel situated near Moscow. Gzhel potters developed in s high quality.
The village of Gzhel has changed very little over the last hundred years: It remains a small village on the river Gzhelka sealed with a dike. The village is home to little more than seven hundred residents, while over 1, are engaged in manufacturing white and blue pottery at small workshops sprinkled throughout the local rural communities. The villages of the area seamlessly merge into an integrated rural area, with its residents traditionally engaged in pottery making.
Gzhel State Art and Industry College, founded more than a hundred years ago, stands at the heart of the region. There is also a museum, a row of shopping stalls displaying pottery of blue designs, and several production buildings. The local trade of white clay pottery making goes back all the way to those far-off days. Several grades of raw clay were distinguished, the white one being the best. Thin, pliant and soapy, it was used to produce porcelain and faience.
The peasants of Gzhel escaped serfdom — the entire region with its peasants was attached to the Apothecary Prikaz an administrative body as intended for earthenware production. About 1, pliant white clay deposits were discovered in the village of Volodino. Soon the first porcelain works were founded there.